a1 University of Chicago Divinity School, 1025 E. 58th Street, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. email: firstname.lastname@example.org
In an infamous passage in his Letter to the Galatians (2.11–14), Paul called out Peter as a ‘hypocrite’. This passage, especially when read in light of Paul's own appeal to himself as ‘all things to all people’ in 1 Cor 9.19–23, was to cause deep trouble for later Christian interpreters, who sought to defend their movement against charges from outsiders that it had a cracked and unstable foundation in dual ‘hypocrites’. This essay will introduce this ‘pagan’ critique and the cultural force it had, and the various solutions to the inherited dilemma from their scriptures that were offered by patristic authors (Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Jerome and Augustine). In light of this context, we turn to a sustained analysis of an untranslated homily by John Chrysostom, hom. in Gal 2.11 (In faciem ei restiti), which addresses not just the hypocrisy of Peter and Paul, but also the sticky problem of the hypocrisy of the Christian who reads this text approvingly as Paul's ‘in your face’ to Peter. Chrysostom does this by engaging in a convoluted pretence of his own.
* A main paper delivered at the annual SNTS meeting at Bard College, August 2011, and at the Late Antiquity Workshop, University of Texas at Austin, September 2011. Warm thanks to all present on both occasions for spirited discussion. I dedicate this paper to the memory of Barbara E. Bowe, RSCJ, accomplished scholar and teacher, and, as all who knew her will attest, no hypocrite.