Advances over the last 20 years in immunology and molecular biology have provided many new tools for identifying the important antigens and new ways to achieve the appropriate immune responses to these antigens. These provide many more options to achieve the best immune response from deletion mutations, subunit antigens, vectors or DNA immunization. These tools are being adopted to screen, discover and produce the appropriate antigens and to deliver them by the optimal method and with novel adjuvants to achieve the appropriate immune response. These developments will result in vaccines for respiratory disease that are safer and more efficacious, and provide greater flexibility for use and administration.
(Received August 12 2009)
(Accepted October 21 2009)