a1 From the Low Temperature Station for Research in Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Cambridge and Department of Scientific and Industrial Research
Data are given showing the concentration of pure ozone required to inhibit the growth of, and to destroy, various micro-organisms when growing on agar, in nutrient broth, a synthetic medium, or simply suspended in water. The following is shown:
1. Different organisms vary in their susceptibility towards this gas. Achromobacter and Pseudomonas strains, such as occur on chilled meat, are the most resistant. On the whole, mould fungi are about as susceptible as bacteria.
2. Very much higher concentrations are required to arrest established growth than can be used if inoculation and admission of inhibitor are coincident.
3. Lower concentrations are inhibitory at lower temperatures. These results are ascribed to dissipation of the ozone by combination with products of bacterial metabolism. It seems that any factor which diminishes growth will augment the effectiveness of ozone.
4. Comparatively small concentrations (less than 10 p.p.m.) suffice to destroy bacteria suspended in water. Somewhat larger concentrations inhibit growth in a synthetic medium.
5. Still larger quantities (several hundred p.p.m.) are required in nutrient broth.
6. Nutrient broth treated with ozone will support little or no bacterial growth, due to change of pH, growth taking place slowly if the pH is restored to its original value. Inhibition of growth in such a medium is therefore a complex process depending in part upon the secondary effects of decomposition of the medium.
7. To kill them, bacteria require still more ozone (in some cases several thousand p.p.m.) if growing on agar. These results are ascribed to combination of ozone with the supporting medium.
8. When applied to organisms growing on food, combination with ozone not only spoils the food, but it makes it difficult to interpret the effect on the microbes in terms of the ozone applied.
9. The inhibitory concentrations are higher than humans can tolerate.
10. Ozone destroys the dehydrogenating enzymes of the cell, and it is suggested that its germicidal action may be partly due to interference with cellular respiration.
The work described in this paper was carried out as part of the programme of the Food Investigation Organization of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research.
(Received March 14 1949)
* The experimental work for this paper was carried out by Dr Haines in 1934–5. Besides a summary which was published, a connected account of all his experiments had been drafted, but its preparation was interrupted by the war and was incomplete when he unfortunately died in December 1943. This paper consists of Haines’s description of the experiments (considerably rearranged), with comments on important work which has appeared since. It is a tribute to the memory of one of our foremost food bacteriologists.