a1 Northwestern University
a2 Privacy Journal
Because voter-identification laws discourage voter turnout, particularly among identifiable minority groups, their implementation abridges a fundamental constitutional right. The U.S. Constitution includes a little-known remedy for denying or abridging the right to vote that reduces a state's congressional representation in proportion to the extent of the abridgements.
An earlier version of this article appeared as part of an amicus brief for Crawford (Albano et al. 2007).